religious conflict in africa

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The parties involved may differ on the question of what role religion should play in the state. In fact, this mutual suspicion and lack of cordiality among the various ethnic components explains why ethnic and religious conflicts have become a permanent feature of Nigeria as a nation as far back as 1980s … If the various facets of weak states increase the risk of conflict… Matthias Basedau: Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. The organization is a rival to the al-Shabab terror group, which is linked with al-Qaida. But we should not expect that this alone will make a quick and sustainable difference. Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953, and in the case of the town of Tafawa Balewa, to 1948. It is about good governance and security. We will sample your texts in our show. The recent attacks are nothing new as religious (and ethnic) conflicts have haunted the country for several years, reaching a peak at the end of 2012. It is about spreading a radical version of Islam. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. We do not know everything yet, but some measures are likely to take hold. First, policies need to address both the religious and non-religious causes. How do you explain this phenomenon? However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts - they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. Countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar are spreading Wahhabism, or similar variants, which can indirectly create a radical ideology that leads to violence. This can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is clear that heterogeneous societies are more vulnerable to triggering conflicts along these lines. Since the awakening of religion, wars have been fought in the name of different gods and goddesses. Got an opinion about the stories making headlines? It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc. Examine Figure 13-1 and you will see that several countries in Africa are in this situation, including Nigeria , Africa ’s most populous state. But it is not entirely clear how this influence is spreading or how strong it is. But we are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have theological demands. This book explains why conflicts in Africa are sometimes ethnic and sometimes religious, and why a conflict might change from ethnic to religious even as the opponents remain fixed. There is no conflict based purely on religion. But it is not entirely clear how this influence is spreading or how strong it is. It is about spreading a radical version of Islam. A weak state allows these kinds of groups to be active in the first place - their radical ideology becomes more attractive to people if the state does not provide adequate public services and the politicians are corrupt. Legal notice | We do not know everything yet, but some measures are likely to take hold. The Government Restrictions Index measures government laws, policies and actions that restrict religious beliefs and practices. But we are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have theological demands. Conflict is thus as old as humanity. Although not necessarily so, there are some aspects of religion that make it susceptible to being a latent source of conflict. Globalization - the simplified flow of information, goods and finances - promotes these kinds of issues, not only in Africa, but also elsewhere. They have supported rebels in Mali and there are indications that they are also doing it in Nigeria and Somalia. Religious Wars. Why do radical groups from North Africa and the Middle East have an interest in stirring up these conflicts? They have an interest in creating branches in other countries. However in Nigeria, religious conflict does not only carry religious motive but also politically inclined such that according to Marshall, recently, the president of Nigeria was forceful in saying the Nigerian conflict has nothing to do intrinsically with religion, that is used as an excuse by politicians’ 10. 7.6: Religious Conflict in North Africa and Southwest Asia. Active radical groups have a more direct influence in North Africa, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), or offshoots of the so-called Islamic State. African governments must do most of the work with the support of other countries. In inter-religious conflicts, the conflict parties differ in their religious affiliation - for example, Christians and Muslims. They have an interest in creating branches in other countries. Such conflicts can arise in majority Muslim societies, such as Mali, Somalia or Northern Nigeria. For decades, religious leaders serve as a means of conflict prevention, mediation, and peacebuilding in East Africa. This can lead to inflexibility and intolerance in the face of other beliefs. Somalia is one of the most unstable countries in Africa; it is also one of the most religiously homogenous countries on the continent. He recently published a study on the rise of armed religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. Political scientist Professor Matthias Basedau conducts research on peace and security at the GIGA Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg. Such conflicts can arise in majority Muslim societies, such as Mali, Somalia or Northern Nigeria. Religion and Violence 1. Countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar are spreading Wahhabism, or similar variants, which can indirectly create a radical ideology that leads to violence. In a multi-ethnic and religiously diverse society like Nigeria, relationships between people may be characterized by lack of cordiality, mutual suspicion and fear as it is the case among the ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria. What counter-measures would have to be taken to stop the advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? After all, if it is the word of God, how can one compromise it? 3. Միլիոնաւոր ամերիկացիներ պիտի դադրին  գործազրկութեան  նպաստէն օգտուելէ, եթէ մինչեւ  շաբաթ  օր նախագահ Թրամփ  չստորագրէ պսակաւոր ժահրին դէմ պաշտպանութեան   Ներկայացուցիչներու տան քուէարկած   օրինագիծը: Նախագահ  Թրամփ  49  անձերու  ներում  շնորհեց, որոնց մէջ՝   քրէական յանցագորութեամբ բանտարկեալներ: Բրիտանիոյ  եւ  Եւրոպական Միութեան միջեւ Brexit-ի համաձայնութիւնը կը  մօտենայ: Արա Այվազեան-  Սերկէյ  Լաւրով հեռախօսազրոյց: 27 դեկտեմբեր  1346՝   ծնաւ    հայ իմաստասէր  Գրիգոր Տաթեւացին ( վախճանեցաւ՝1409): 27 դեկտեմբեր 1571՝  ծնաւ  գերմանացի աստղագէտ  Եոհան Քեփլըրը (մահացաւ՝  1630): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1822՝  ծնաւ  ֆրանսացի   մանրէաբան  Լուիս  Փասթէորը (մահացաւ՝ 1895): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1901՝ ծնաւ  ծագումով  գերմանացի-ամերիկացի դերասանուհի, երգչուհի  Մարլէն  Տիթրիխը (մահացաւ՝ 1992): 27  դեկտեմբեր  1923՝  մահացաւ ֆրանսացի  ճարտարագէտ  Կիւսթաւ Էյֆէլը (ծնեալ՝ 1832): 27  դեկտեմբեր 1925՝  ծնաւ  ֆրանսացի դերասան  Միշէլ Փիքոլին: 27  դեկտեմբեր  1925՝  մահացաւ  ռուս  բանաստեղծ  Սերկէյ  Եսենինը (ծնեալ՝ 1895): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1940՝   մահացաւ  հայ  հասարակական գործիչ Արշակ  Ջամալեանը (ծնեալ՝ 1882): 27  դեկտեմբեր   1998՝  մահացաւ  հայ  գրող եւ հրապարակախօս Գէորգ Աճեմեանը (ծնեալ՝  1932). As a general rule, the process of conflict outbreak involves three … This is different from theological conflicts which are mostly about religious ideas. Religious and ethnic nationalism has led to conflicts about control of state power, unequal allocation of resources, citizenship issues, state collapse, economic decline and ethno-religious clashes. On the religious side, one can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of faith. Nigeria, in view, is a country blessed with vast geographical landmarks, a nation with vast ethnic groups and many … when the Iranians, who made the revolution a success and subsequently assumed position of power and authority in the government administration, formulated the state policy of their liking. For example, radical Muslim groups demand the introduction of Sharia law. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. (20.03.2016), A militant group linked to the self-proclaimed "Islamic State" (IS) has taken control of a small port in the Horn of Africa. ... Th is religious map of Africa is the result of the encounters, over centuries, between the indigenous religions of the continent with the Arabs and the Eu- (26.10.2016). Christianity was first introduced to the continent by the white man during colonisation. You also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts. advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. It has two objectives: to analyse the role Christianity played in the TRC and to highlight certain consequences that may be instructive to future international conflict resolution processes. Firstly, we need to be aware that there are both religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. Globalization – the simplified flow of information, goods and finances – promotes these kinds of issues, not only in Africa, but also elsewhere. Sub-Saharan Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form of Islam, for example, Sufism. The interview was conducted by Gwendolin Hilse. The GRI comprises 20 measures of restrictions, now grouped into the following categories:6 Religion and conflict resolution is an area of significant importance. This book examines the ambiguous role that Christianity played in South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). Firstly, we need to be aware that there are both religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time. In Nigeria the Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims. The government has been unable to destroy Boko Haram or end … In this session, participants will engage with the German Ambassador to Tanzania, Ambassador Regine Hess, who presides over the long-standing and close relations between Germany and the nations of East Africa. The rise of ISIS is representative of many key issues of geography in this region: the intersection of religious values, political instability, and control of territory and resources. Boundaries between major religions that cross countries can be powerful sources of conflict, with serious implications for political cohesion and stability. «Նոյյան Տապան»-ի հյուրն է գրող, հրապարակախոս, գործարար Կիրակոս Գույումճեանը. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. Conflicts in the region are often viewed as either 'tribal' or 'Muslim-Christian', seemingly rooted in … What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts? It can also be said to be an incompatibility, as of two things that cannot be simultaneously fulfilled. Conflict Trends in Africa – M. G. Marshall (2005) Page 1 of 28 African Regional Trends in Warfare and Political Instability The modern state system in Sub-Saharan African1 (hereafter referred to simply as Africa) is relatively new; only Ethiopia, Liberia, and South Africa were recognized as independent states What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts? On the religious side, one can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of faith. The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. Today, Africa is laced with some of the most obstinate conflicts, most of them constructed from differences in religious and ethnic identities. Several measures will be required but the good news is that some of these are already in place. Religious and ethnic conflicts are likely to escalate as two other northern states, Niger and Sokoto, have bills to enforce sharia law expected to take effect in May this year. Religious polarization is a real challenge in Nigeria, and it has likely increased. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. Most Africans are Christians, but is Christianity an African religion? The Igbo massacre of 1966 in the North that followed the counter-coup of the same year had as a dual cause the Igbo officers' coup and pre-existing (sectarian) … In other words, governments and states must offer their citizens better prospects. Please make sure to include your name and your country. Privacy Policy | However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts – they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. Why do radical groups from North Africa and the Middle East have an interest in stirring up these conflicts? He recently published a study on the rise of armed religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, radical Muslim groups demand the introduction of Sharia law. Basically, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts. In the popular mind, to discuss religion in the context of international affairs automatically raises the specter of religious-based conflict. Still today most violent conflicts contain religious elements linked up with ethno-national, inter-state, economic, territorial, cultural and other issues. Political scientist Professor Matthias Basedau conducts research on peace and security at the GIGA Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg. © 2020 Deutsche Welle | Several measures will be required but the good news is that some of these are already in place. In Burundi and Nigeria for example, Germany supports pilot projects through the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). Somalia is one of the most unstable countries in Africa; it is also one of the most religiously homogenous countries on the continent. Matthias Basedau: Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. But of course, not all Muslims in these countries are radical Islamists. In his article, ‘Conflict and Peace in West Africa,’ Cybil Obi identifies that: The roots of conflict in West Africa are much deeper and complex, and are embedded in the interplay of historical factors, socio-economic crisis, legacies of authoritarianism and the politics of exclusion, international forces, and local struggles . advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. Ethiopia was the first countryto adopt Christianity as a doctrine. Conflict can be defined as a clash or disagreement often violent between opposing groups or individuals. As religious armed conflicts in Africa and elsewhere stem from a mix of causes, responses must include a variety of measures. Trial for murder of reporter Jan Kuciak begins in Slovakia, Tragedy of Artsakh Or Fear and Shame of Nikol Pashinyan, Global Research on Karabakh conflict, Pashinyan, Soros: Don’t blame the Soviets for war in Karabakh, Azerbaijan Jews know fears of Nagorno-Karabakh ‘Cultural Genocide’ unfounded. On the other hand, thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures. This is different from theological conflicts which are mostly about religious ideas. | Mobile version. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. All Christians are listed in one category regardless of their denominations. You also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts. It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. The contribution that religion can make to peacemaking--as the flip side of religious conflict--is only beginning to be explored and explicated. The counter-measures must be based on a careful analysis of the causes. How do you explain this phenomenon? In Nigeria the Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims. In inter-religious conflicts, the conflict parties differ in their religious affiliation – for example, Christians and Muslims. Among the believers of Christ, ther… https://www.dw.com/en/religious-conflicts-on-the-rise-in-africa/a-40645771 At the same time, scripture and dogma are often vague and open to interpretation. The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. The group refuses to register as a religious movement. They include the Protestants, Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Independent and non-affiliated Christians. The many other dimensions and impacts of religion tend to be downplayed or even neglected entirely. Conflict resolution in African countries Africa as a continent is endowed with enough resources to keep the world moving for years. “Conflict” is defined as the underlying issue in dispute between or among parties and “conflict resolution” as the elimination of causes of the underlying conflict. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. © Yerepouni News (Managed by Alienative.net). Other Middle Eastern states are more likely to have an indirect influence. (14.12.2016), The Kenyan military has killed some 34 militants belonging to the extremist al-Shabab group in two separate operations. RELIGION AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON EAST AFRICA Bjørn Møller DIIS REPORT DIIS REPORT 2006:6 DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. All religions have their accepted dogma, or articles of belief, that followers must accept without question. Send Facebook Twitter reddit EMail Facebook Messenger Web Whatsapp Web Telegram linkedin. 4.3.2 Religious conflict during the 1980’s According to Falola, ‘religious violence became one of the most serious crises of the 1980’s and beyond.’75 Falola argues that the religious violence during the 1980’s in Nigeria was a result of internal economic and political decay.76 He further argues that religious tension was building up from the 1970’s as a result of the role that religion played in politics. Although religion is a major factor in the Sudanese conflicts, it is not the only one. The interview was conducted by Gwendolin Hilse, In northwestern Nigeria, a lethal conflict between the authorities and the outlawed Islamist group IMN continues one year after hundreds were killed in clashes. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. CONFLICTS AND CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA. It is about good governance and security. The raids took place in neighboring Somalia, where the government is fighting the Islamists. What counter-measures would have to be taken to stop the advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? On the other hand, thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures. Prior to … A weak state allows these kinds of groups to be active in the first place – their radical ideology becomes more attractive to people if the state does not provide adequate public services and the politicians are corrupt. (function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); You have entered an incorrect email address! Nigeria has been pushed hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional or sta… But of course, not all Muslims in these countries are radical Islamists. Causes of Religious conflicts in Kenya Religious conflict in Kenya is in most cases linked to general intercommunal conflict and follows almost synonymous pattern as that of inter-ethnic conflict. In the Islamic history, conflict between religion and politics settled after the Abbasid revolution (750.A.D.) Contact Active radical groups have a more direct influence in North Africa, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), or offshoots of the so-called Islamic State. The counter-measures must be based on a careful analysis of the causes. They have supported rebels in Mali and there are indications that they are also doing it in Nigeria and Somalia. From a non-religious point of view, this is mainly about long-term development. Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict? Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict? Other Middle Eastern states are more likely to have an indirect influence. Send us a text at +49-160-9575 9510. International SMS charges apply. On July 9, 2011, South Sudan became an independent nation. This can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is clear that heterogeneous societies are more vulnerable to triggering conflicts along these lines. The parties involved may differ on the question of what role religion should play in the state. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Basically, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts. There is no conflict based purely on religion. Sub-Saharan Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form of Islam, for example, Sufism. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. In other words, governments and states must offer their citizens better prospects. Religion is the spark for disputes throughout the world, but especially in Africa. But we should not expect that this alone will make a quick and sustainable difference. African governments must do most of the work with the support of other countries. From a non-religious point of view, this is mainly about long-term development. ISIS represents a fundamentalist view of Islam, known as Islamism. In Burundi and Nigeria for example, Germany supports pilot projects through the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). We use cookies to improve our service for you. Resources to keep the world, but is Christianity an African religion their accepted dogma, or conflicts over or. Mentioned in your study that countries with a SPECIAL FOCUS on East Africa Bjørn Møller DIIS REPORT DANISH! Religious affiliation - for example, Christians and Muslims up these conflicts economic,,... 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